As Predicted:Meta-Analysis of Big Five Personality Traits and Expressive Behavior (#60949)
Created: 03/15/2021 10:57 AM (PT)
This is an anonymized version of the pre-registration. It was created by the author(s) to use during peer-review.
A non-anonymized version (containing author names) should be made available by the authors when the work it supports is made public.
1) Have any data been collected for this study already?
No, no data have been collected for this study yet.2) What's the main question being asked or hypothesis being tested in this study?
This systematic review and meta-analysis will gather relevant literature on expressive behavior associated with the Big Five personality constructs (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism). The goal of the project is to provide a synopsis of what each personality trait looks like as expressed in social interactions. Grounded behavioral consistency personality theories, Big Five personality traits research, and previous nonverbal behavior research, multiple meta-analyses will examine the magnitude of the relationship expressive nonverbal behaviors and the Big Five personality traits. The following hypotheses will be tested:
H1: Extraversion and Neuroticism will be associated with the higher number of expressive behaviors in comparison to Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness.
H2: Extraversion and Neuroticism will show stronger effect sizes in comparison to Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness.
Exploratory analyses will test estimates of effect sizes for specific traits with specific behaviors. It is expected that 100+ samples and at least 10+ expressive nonverbal behaviors will be analyzed.3) Describe the key dependent variable(s) specifying how they will be measured.
For studies meeting the inclusion criteria, the following variables will be coded: publication year, country and continent of data collection, sample size, number of independent samples, lab or field study, measured behavior(s), measured trait(s), behavior channel (e.g., face, body), correlation between behavior(s) and trait(s). Additional variables may be coded (to be determined).
Each study will be coded for relevant data by coders with established reliability. Correlations will be used for effect size estimates with a positive sign indicating higher trait scores with more of a behavior and a negative sign indicating higher trait scores with less of a behavior.4) How many and which conditions will participants be assigned to?
Not applicable.5) Specify exactly which analyses you will conduct to examine the main question/hypothesis.
A systematic search of available literature will be done according to the PRISMA guidelines (Moher et al., 2009). Searched databases will include (but not limited to): APA PsycInfo, ERIC, MEDLINE, OpenDissertations, Social Science Full Text, and Web of Science selected databases.
Studies meeting the following inclusion criteria (but not limited to) will be eligible for analysis: data/study written in English, sample size provided, effect size can be computed with available data, sample size ≥ 10 participants, study conducted from 1950 onwards, trait measured by established self-report measures (e.g., NEO-FFI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire). Expressive behaviors measured via reliable judges/coders, automated methods, and other techniques outside of self-reports and informed-others data. Other exclusion/inclusion criteria may be determined.
The number of meta-analyses depends on the number of expressive behaviors measured in conjunction with each trait as identified from literature searching. Correlations for each trait will be meta-analyzed only for behaviors that were measured in at least 5 independent samples for any given trait.
Random and/or fixed-effects meta-analysis with product-moment r as an effect size (ES) metric, ES 95% confidence interval, Z‐value, ES heterogeneity. Contrast analyses, measures of sampling bias, and other meta-analytic statistics may be calculated. Possible moderators of ES will be investigated and may include (but not limited to): gender, country/continent of data collection, type of personality measure, and cue channel.6) Describe exactly how outliers will be defined and handled, and your precise rule(s) for excluding observations.
See inclusion criteria for coded studies. Obtained effect sizes will be inspected for outliers, those with Z-values below 3.29 or greater than 3.29 may be considered outliers. Winsorizing may be used to reduce possible outlier effects (Hastings et al., 1947; Lipsey & Wilson, 2001).7) How many observations will be collected or what will determine sample size?
No need to justify decision, but be precise about exactly how the number will be determined.
The number of studies will depend on final inclusion/exclusion criteria. It is expected that upwards of 100+ studies may be coded and analyzed. For analysis, behaviors that have been correlated with a given trait in at least five studies will be meta-analyzed.8) Anything else you would like to pre-register?
(e.g., secondary analyses, variables collected for exploratory purposes, unusual analyses planned?)
Preliminary literature searching began March 8, 2021. Data analyses will not commence until literature searching is complete.