#49029 | AsPredicted

As Predicted:Polish Adaptation of the Content-Based Media Exposure Scale (#49029)


Created:       10/06/2020 07:22 AM (PT)

This is an anonymized version of the pre-registration.  It was created by the author(s) to use during peer-review.
A non-anonymized version (containing author names) should be made available by the authors when the work it supports is made public.

1) Have any data been collected for this study already?
No, no data have been collected for this study yet.

2) What's the main question being asked or hypothesis being tested in this study?
H-1: Exposure to antisocial and prosocial content in media (C-ME2) varies by gender.
H-1a: Men are more exposed to antisocial content in the media than women.
H-1b: Women are more exposed to prosocial content in the media than men.
H-2: Exposure to prosocial media content (C-ME2) is positively correlated with trait empathy.
H-3: Exposure to antisocial media content (C-ME2) is negatively correlated with trait empathy.
H-4: Exposure to antisocial media content (C-ME2) is positively correlated with exposure to violence in the media.
H-5: Empathy is negatively correlated with exposure to violence in the media.
H-6: Exposure to antisocial media content (C-ME2) is positively correlated with a tendency to aggressive behavior.
H-7: Exposure to prosocial media content (C-ME2) is negatively correlated with a tendency to aggressive behavior.
H-8: Exposure to prosocial media content (C-ME2) is positively correlated with well-being.
H-9: Exposure to violent media and antisocial media content (C-ME2) predicts a decrease in well-being.
H-10: Higher social media self-control failure (SMSCF) predicts a lower level of well-being.
RQ1. Does the social media self-control failure (SMSCF) moderate the relation between exposure to violence in social media (CME antisocial scale) and well-being?

3) Describe the key dependent variable(s) specifying how they will be measured.
1.The scale of general media use (General media use; Rideout et al., 2010) in the Polish language version. Participants will be asked to name 3 favorite (1) video/computer games, (2) TV series/movies, (3) social media platforms, and rate how frequently they use (scale: in hours/week).

2.The scale of exposure to violence in the media (Anderson and Dill, 2000). Participants will be asked to rate how much violent content include media they named in the general media use (scale: 1= not violent at all to 7 = extremely violent). Additionally, we will use official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) ratings to objectively rate violent content in video/computer games, as well as other oficial ratings to compare them with the subjective violent content rating.

3.Content-Based Media Exposure Scale (C-ME2) - 22 items (den Hamer, Konijnm, & Bushman, 2017) in Polish language adaptation. The scale includes Antisocial (10 items) and Prosocial subscale (12 items), answered on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 = never; 5 = very often.

4.Scale of Empathy - sub-scale of Empathic Concern, Polish adaptation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis; 1980) - Questionnaire for Empathic Sensitivity (SWE; Ka┼║mierczak, Plopa, & Retowski, 2007) - 11 items; 5-point Likert scale: 1 = I fully disagree; 5 = I fully agree.

5.Scale of Physical Aggressiveness - subscale from the Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ; Buss and Perry, 1992) in Polish adaptation (Amity Institute, 2005) - 9 items; 5-point Likert scale: 1 = does not fit me at all ; 5 = fits me very well.

6.Social Media Self-Control Failure scale (Du i in., 2018; SMSCF); 3 items; 5-point Likert scale: 1 = almost never, 5 = very often.

7.KIDSCREEN - adolescents' subjective health and well-being (Ravens-Sieberer et al., 2007) - 13 questions; subscales: general well-being, friends, school and education

8.PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) - sleep quality (Buysse, Reynolds, Monk, Berman & Kupfer, 1989) - 3 items: component 1 and 2

9.Bedtime Procrastination Scale - bedtime procrastination (Kroese et al., 2014) - 3 items (1, 4, 5 adapted to the current study in the context of social media use) ; scale from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always)

4) How many and which conditions will participants be assigned to?
There will be no conditions; all participants will follow the same procedure.

5) Specify exactly which analyses you will conduct to examine the main question/hypothesis.
We plan to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and item analysis for the C-ME2 Polish adaptation. In addition, we plan a factorial invariance analysis (males vs.females) for C-ME2, a correlation analysis and descriptive statistics including all measured variables will be carried out.
H-9 and H-10 will be tested with regression analyses, where exposure to violent media and antisocial media content (H-9) and social media self-control failure (SMSCF; H-10) will be predictors of well-being.

6) Describe exactly how outliers will be defined and handled, and your precise rule(s) for excluding observations.
We are planning to implement 3 attention checks. We are going to include participants into the database who will pass at least 2 out of 3 attention checks, enter the right age (16-18) and gender and provide responses to all questionnaire items.

7) How many observations will be collected or what will determine sample size?
No need to justify decision, but be precise about exactly how the number will be determined.

We plan to collect 400 full responses. The estimated sample size is based on an a-priori power analysis, which showed that for a factorial analysis of CME (the main analysis) with 22 items and two factors the estimated power with 400 participants was 1.0.
Output of the a-priori power analysis is available at:
https://tinyurl.com/yyzfobap

8) Anything else you would like to pre-register?
(e.g., secondary analyses, variables collected for exploratory purposes, unusual analyses planned?)

Additionally, we will perform a comparison between subjective vs. objective exposure to violent media content with a within-participants t-test. In case of a significant difference, we will use the variable (subjective or objective violent content exposure) which was higher.